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Institucionalización de la investigación clínica médica en Argentina (1950). El Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas (IIM), en perspectiva con experiencias precedentes




Lucía Romero
Instituto de Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia - Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (IEC – UNQ)
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Resumen:

El presente trabajo analiza una fase de institucionalización de la investigación clínica médica en Argentina, iniciada en el contexto de los procesos de modernización cultural, científicos, y académico-universitarios, ocurridos a partir de 1955. En este marco, se constituyeron espacios de producción de conocimiento científicos y de sociabilidad que otorgaron nueva identidad a la investigación clínica médica: el Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas (IIM) de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), creado en 1957, y la Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Clínica (SAIC), en 1960.
El carácter sui generis de estos espacios radica, por un lado, en su comparación, en términos de rupturas y continuidades, con un conjunto de instituciones, referentes y prácticas precedentes; por el otro lado, radica en una serie de elementos individuales y contextuales, configurados a partir de los cambios ocurridos en la vida cultural y universitaria en el medio local e internacional de la disciplina médica, durante la década de 1950, tendientes a la profesionalización de las actividades de investigación y docencia en la universidad.   

Palabras claves: investigación clínica médica, institucionalización, profesionalización.



Abstract:

Institutionalization of clinical medical research in Argentina (1950). The Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas (IIM), in perspective with precedent experiences

This paper analyzes a stage of the clinical medical research institutionalization process, initiated in the cultural, scientific and academic modernization that occurred in Argentina, since 1955. In this context, there were created new institutions oriented to socialize and produce scientific and medical knowledge which gave an original identity to the clinical medical research field: Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas (IIM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), created in 1957, and the Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Clínica (SAIC), in 1960. On the one hand, its novelty lies on its comparison, in terms of breaks and continuities, with a set of precedent institutions, referents and practices. On the other hand, it lies on a set of individual and contextual elements, occurred with the changes introduced in the cultural and academic life in Argentina and in the medical discipline, since the decade of 1950, which speeded up professionalization processes of research and teaching activities at university.  

Keywords: medical clinical research, institutionalization, professionalization.



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Medicine as an Absurdist Quest in Albert Camus’ The Plague




Robert J. Bonk
Widener University
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Abstract:

As a social construct, modern medicine reflects a society’s paradigms and perspectives.  Within a modern technological age of increasing estrangement, intellectuals developed new philosophies such as absurdism—as well as literature reflecting these paradigms—that soon questioned whether a “magic bullet” could ever offer a panacea for antiseptic institutions. One exemplar is French-Algerian writer Albert Camus. In his 1947 novel The Plague, Camus quarantines the inhabitants of Oran in a struggle against a bubonic-like epidemic. Within this microcosm, Camus juxtaposes medicine against government and religion in his quest to find medical meaning in an absurd world.

Keywords: absurdity, Albert Camus, existentialism, medicine, plague


Resumen:

La medicina como una búsqueda absurdista en La Plaga de Albert Camus

Como construcción social, la medicina moderna refleja los paradigmas y las perspectivas de una sociedad. Dentro de una era moderna y tecnológica de creciente enajenación, los intelectuales desarrollaron nuevas filosofías tales como el absurdismo —así como también una literatura que refleja esos paradigmas— que rápidamente se cuestionó si “una bala mágica” alguna vez ofrecería una panacea para las instituciones antisépticas. Un modelo es el del escritor franco-argelino Albert Camus, que en su novela La Peste (1947), pone en cuarentena a los habitantes de Orán en la lucha contra una epidemia como la peste bubónica. Dentro de este microcosmos, Camus yuxtapone la medicina contra gobierno y religión en su búsqueda del sentido médico en un mundo absurdo.

Palabras claves: absurdismo, Albert Camus, existencialismo, medicina, peste.



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El Moderno Prometeo.

Cuestiones éticas y epistémicas en torno a la construcción del cuerpo humano como objeto de estudio y su relación con la psiquiatría y la psicofarmacología




Ismael Apud
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de la República (UdelaR)
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Resumen:

El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar las implicancias éticas y epistémicas  en el problema de la construcción del cuerpo humano como objeto de estudio científico, enfocándonos principalmente en el terreno de la psiquiatría y los psicofármacos. Para ello comenzaremos analizando el problema de la objetividad científica y sus repercusiones éticas. Proseguiremos con una aproximación histórica a la emergencia del cuerpo humano como objeto de estudio científico, así como al origen y desarrollo de la psiquiatría y la psicofarmacología. Por último realizaremos algunas reflexiones sobre ética, ciencia y tecnología en el campo de la salud mental y en relación al uso masivo de psicofármacos en la actualidad.

Palabras claves: ética, tecnología, objetividad científica, cuerpo humano, psiquiatría, psicofármacos.



Abstract:

The Modern Prometheus. Ethical and episthemical issues concerning the construction of human body as a study object and its relation with psychiatry and psychopharmacology

The following paper aims to discuss the ethical and epistemological implications in the problem of the human body as an object of scientific study, focusing in the field of psychiatry and psychiatric medication. At first, we will analyze the problem of scientific objectivity and its ethical implications. We will continue with an historical approach to the emergence of the human body as an object of scientific study, and the origin and development of psychiatry and psychopharmacology. Finally we will discuss about ethics, science and technology in the mental health field, and the massive use of psychiatric medication in the present tense.

Keywords: ethics, technology, scientific objectivity, human body, psychiatry, psychiatric medication.



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Literature-Centered Medicine: The Story of Ignac Semmelweis




Jennifer M. Martinez1, Neha Kumar1, Kelsey Shelton-Dodge1, Elizabeth J. Wilkinson1, James S. Newman2
1College of Medicine and 2Department of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota
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Abstract:

Literature-centered medicine is a nontraditional learning method developed to supplement medical didactic curricula. With this method, a work of medically related fiction was used as a starting point in the exploration of various historical and contemporary topics. The project initially involved reading Morton Thompson’s The Cry and the Covenant, a fictionalized biography of the Hungarian obstetrician Ignac Semmelweis, known for promoting antisepsis in nineteenth-century Europe. Subsequently, a branching analysis of five major topics generated from this work was conducted. Multiple parallels were identified between nineteenth-century and twenty-first century medical communities. The group concluded that approaching medicine from this nontraditional angle was an intellectually stimulating way to learn and an excellent supplement to didactic education. Literature-centered medicine led to an exploration of issues that would have otherwise been overlooked in a standard learning environment, while also providing an opportunity to apply history to the understanding of modern medical practice.

Keywords: hospital-acquired infections, nosocomial infections, hand washing, noncompliance, puerperal fever, history of medicine, medical education, nineteenth-century, medical economics.



Resumo:

Medicina centrada em literatura: a história de Ignac Semmelweis

Medicina centrada em literatura é um método de aprendizagem não-tradicional desenvolvido para suplementar currículos didáticos médicos. Com este método, um trabalho relacionado a  ficção médica  foi usado como ponto de partida na exploração de vários tópicos históricos e contemporâneos. O projeto envolveu inicialmente a leitura do livro “The Cry and the Covenant” de Morton Thompson, uma biografia de ficção do ginecologista húngaro Ignac Semmelweis, conhecido por promover anti-sepsia na Europa no século XIX. Subsequentemente, uma análise de ramificação foi conduzida a partir de cinco principais tópicos gerados deste trabalho. Múltiplos paralelos foram identificados entre as comunidades médicas do século XIX e do século XXI. O grupo concluiu que abordando a medicina de um ângulo não-tradicional era uma maneira intelectual de estimular o aprendizado e também um excelente suplemento de educação didática. A medicina centrada em literatura levou a exploração de questões que, de outra maneira, seriam negligenciadas em um ambiente de aprendizagem padrão, enquanto que também podem fornecer a oportunidade de aplicar a história á compreensão da prática médica moderna

Palavras-chave: infecção hospitalar, infecção nosocomial, lavagem das mãos, inaderência, febre puerperal, Historia da medicina, Educação Médica, século dezenove, economia médica.



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Literature-Centered Medicine:

The Story of Ignac Semmelweis


Jennifer M. Martinez1, Neha Kumar1, Kelsey Shelton-Dodge1,

Elizabeth J. Wilkinson1, James S. Newman2

1College of Medicine and 2Department of Hospital Internal Medicine,

Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota

Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo.


Abstract:

Literature-centered medicine is a nontraditional learning method developed to supplement medical didactic curricula. With this method, a work of medically related fiction was used as a starting point in the exploration of various historical and contemporary topics. The project initially involved reading Morton Thompson’s The Cry and the Covenant, a fictionalized biography of the Hungarian obstetrician Ignac Semmelweis, known for promoting antisepsis in nineteenth-century Europe. Subsequently, a branching analysis of five major topics generated from this work was conducted. Multiple parallels were identified between nineteenth-century and twenty-first century medical communities. The group concluded that approaching medicine from this nontraditional angle was an intellectually stimulating way to learn and an excellent supplement to didactic education. Literature-centered medicine led to an exploration of issues that would have otherwise been overlooked in a standard learning environment, while also providing an opportunity to apply history to the understanding of modern medical practice.

Key words: hospital-acquired infections, nosocomial infections, hand washing, noncompliance, puerperal fever, history of medicine, medical education, nineteenth-century, medical economics

Resumo:

Medicina centrada em literatura: a história de Ignac Semmelweis

Medicina centrada em literatura é um método de aprendizagem não-tradicional desenvolvido para suplementar currículos didáticos médicos. Com este método, um trabalho relacionado a  ficção médica  foi usado como ponto de partida na exploração de vários tópicos históricos e contemporâneos. O projeto envolveu inicialmente a leitura do livro “The Cry and the Covenant” de Morton Thompson, uma biografia de ficção do ginecologista húngaro Ignac Semmelweis, conhecido por promover anti-sepsia na Europa no século XIX. Subsequentemente, uma análise de ramificação foi conduzida a partir de cinco principais tópicos gerados deste trabalho. Múltiplos paralelos foram identificados entre as comunidades médicas do século XIX e do século XXI. O grupo concluiu que abordando a medicina de um ângulo não-tradicional era uma maneira intelectual de estimular o aprendizado e também um excelente suplemento de educação didática. A medicina centrada em literatura levou a exploração de questões que, de outra maneira, seriam negligenciadas em um ambiente de aprendizagem padrão, enquanto que também podem fornecer a oportunidade de aplicar a história á compreensão da prática médica moderna

Palavras-chave: infecção hospitalar, infecção nosocomial, lavagem das mãos, inaderência, febre puerperal, Historia da medicina, Educação Médica, século dezenove, economia médica

A Cultural and Linguistic Translation of Warm Factor Epidemics Wenbing as Seasonal Viral Influenza Epidemics in Australia



Rey Tiquia
School of Historical Studies, Faculty of Arts, The University of Melbourne
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Abstract:

A new understanding of science as a knowledge system is emerging. In place of universalizing theories, there is recognition of locatedness and situatednss as characteristics of scientific knowledge. This has a bearing on the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western biomedicine. Both are generated in located and situated clinical practices. Clinical space can thus be seen as a platform upon which TCM and Western biomedicine can engage in mutual translation.
Bruno Latour refers to ‘translation’ as ‘the interpretation given by fact-builders of their interests and those of the people they enrol.’ This offers the possibility of a local and situated interpretation of other knowledge systems including TCM. Using this methodology, I translate into terms of wenbing influenza the viral epidemics of Western biomedicine.

Keywords: Translation, Warm factor epidemic, Wenbing, viral influenza, Chinese medicine, Western biomedicine  



Résumé:


Une nouvelle compréhension de la science comme système de connaissance commence à apparaître.   Au lieu des théories universalisantes on reconnaît la localisation comme une caractéristique des connaissances scientifiques. Cela se rapporte à la relation entre la médicine traditionelle chinoise et la biomédicine occidentale, étant donné qu’on les engendre également dans les pratiques cliniques localisées. On peut donc voir l’espace clinique comme un moyen de permettre à la médicine traditionelle chinoise et à la biomédicine de se traduire réciproquement.
Bruno Latour parle de la translation comme l’interprétation rendue par les concepteurs de faits de leurs propres intérêts et des intérêts de ceux qu’ils recrutent. Cela rend possible une interprétation localisée et située des autres systèmes de connaissance,  y compris la médicine traditionelle chinoise. En utilisant cette méthodologie, je traduis les épidémies virales de la biomédicine occidentale sur le plan de la grippe chinoise (wenbing).       

Mots clés: Translation, épidémie de facteur chaud, Wenbing, grippe virale, médicine chinoise, biomédicine occidentale



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